When you first decide to try oil painting, the choice of art supplies available can be overwhelming and confusing. So here's a list of all the supplies you need to start painting with traditional oils. (Page 1 | Page 2)
All the different colors of paint on offer are very seductive, but start with a few essential colors, get to know each well, and you'll learn about color mixing more quickly. I suggest these colors:
• cadmium red (medium) or naphthol red
• phthalo blue
• cadmium yellow (medium)
• phthalo green
• burnt umber
• titanium white (opaque)
• zinc white (transparent) and
• Payne's grey
There isn't a black on the list; mixtures of the other colors will give more interesting dark colors for shadows. Be careful with cadmiums and getting it on your skin as cadmium pigments are poisonous. If it worries you, pick a hue version.
It's tempting, but truly you don't need loads of brushes in all the different sizes and shapes. You'll develop a preference for particular sizes and shape, as well as type of hair. To start, I recommend getting just two sizes of filbert brush, with stiff hairs, such as an 8 and 12. A filbert is a versatile brush shape that gives a range of strokes, from wide to narrow, depending how you're holding it. (Note: Brush sizes are not standardized, so a size 10 in one brand won't necessarily be the same size as a 10 in another brand. Check the width if this is stated.)
While oil paint will stay wet and workable on a brush for some time, you will at some stage need to clean them. Fewer brushes equals less cleaning!
Using a palette knife instead of a brush to mix colors on a palette means you don't end up with a very mucky brush to clean and it also wastes less paint. It's also also easier to mix colors together well. And, when a painting goes horribly wrong, you can use a palette knife to scrape the wet paint off a canvas.
A palette is used to hold a bit of each paint color squeezed out of the tube, with an area in the center for mixing colors. You need to decide whether you want a palette you hold in your hand or place on a table, and whether it's wooden, white, or transparent (glass). Holding a palette takes a little getting used to, but there's nothing stopping you putting it flat on a tabletop. If you need to clean up completely after each session, a disposable paper palette (Buy Direct) may be more practical.
If you're left-handed, look for a wood palette that's either designed for lefties, hasn't been chamfered (the thumbhole edges smoothed), or has a rubbery thumb insert so it doesn't matter which hand you hold it in.
Oil mediums are mixed in with oil paint to modify the way it handles, for instance to make it thinner or more dilute. Refined linseed oil is the most commonly used medium, but it's worth giving a range of oils a try, even as a beginner, as each has slightly different properties.
Solvent is used to thin oil paint (creating the "lean" paint in fat over lean) and to clean brushes easily. If you do use solvents with your oil painting, ensure your painting space is well ventilated, even if it is a low-odor variety. You don't have to use solvents, you can oil paint without it and use only oil medium to thin your paint and clean your brushes (but you'll need more patience because the paint doesn't "dissolve" in oil like it does in solvent).
Because solvent evaporates quickly, it means the oil paint will dry more quickly than when you're using an oil medium. It also "dissolves" the paint easily, which makes rinsing paint out of a brush faster.
If you find yourself wishing your oil paint would dry faster, then using alkyd mediums will help. These are compatible with oil paint, and do the same job as oil mediums and solvents, but are formulated to dry much more quickly. Some are formulated as gels or texture paste, to give more body to oil paint.
You're not going to paint a masterpiece every time you pick up your brush. Sometimes you need to play and practice. If you do this on paper rather than a canvas it's not only cheaper but storage is less of a problem too. You can use a sketchbook, but the oil from the paint will soak through. Either paint primer (buy direct) on the paper first (most acrylic primers are suitable for oil paint, but do check), or buy a pad of canvas paper.